Monday, June 29, 2020
Rudyard Kipling was regarded by his peers as a fine satirist. Many of the leading wits of his day, including Mark Twain, met him in person and acknowledged him as a peer. One of the things Kipling subtly criticized through his poetry was the traditional association of higher class with superior knowledge. This essay will examine Gunga Din, Tommy, and Gentlemen-Rankers to show how Kipling inverts the class hierarchy by presenting a character at or near the bottom of the human social ladder as having a superior level of insight, enlightenment, or basic human decency relative to those who are conventionally regarded as being Ã¢â¬Å"aboveÃ¢â¬ him. Kipling does not present the irony overtly and relies on specific literary techniques to accomplish it. This essay will present examples of the techniques Kipling uses to establish and then undermine conventional class assumptions. In all three poems, Kipling begins by letting his readers know who is speaking. He does this by narrating in the first person singular and by altering conventional English spelling to reflect the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s accent. This is not a technique unique to Kipling; Dickens used it also in Oliver Twist. When the text is read aloud exactly as it is written, the accent sends a very clear signal to the contemporary reader about the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s class and origins. The reader therefore fills in some unwritten assumptions about the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s education, life experiences, and future prospects. Since KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s time the English language has mutated, and entirely new dialects have developed that are so distinct from one another as to be mutually unintelligible. It is therefore necessary to interpret KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s implied pronunciation and etymology according to the conventions of his times. In Gunga Din and Tommy, KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s narrator drops the terminal Ã¢â¬Å"fÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"gÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"dÃ¢â¬ along with many Ã¢â¬Å"hÃ¢â¬ sounds and adjusts the pronunciation of words like Ã¢â¬Å"halfÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"getÃ¢â¬ . This is consistent with the Cockney dialect of English which originated in London. So the narrators of Gunga Din and Tommy were not born in India like Kipling himself, nor are they from Scotland, Ireland , nor is he from Scotland or Ireland. Furthermore, they do not have the cultured speech and grammatical precision of the gentleman narrator in Gentlemen-Rankers, who pronounces every letter. So, in the very first line of each poem Kipling establishes the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s origin and hereditary social status. Along with the class signal go some assumptions about the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s life experiences and level of education. All three of the narrators are military men, but their locations and perspectives differ greatly. Gunga Din tells the story of a former British soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s interaction with the regimental bhisti or water-bearer while serving in India during Queen VictoriaÃ¢â¬â¢s era. The eponymous water-bearer, wearing nothing more than a loincloth and a goatskin water-bag, would run back and forth behind the lines supplying thirsty British troops with water. This was an essential service throughout history especially in India, where the heat and humidity can become so oppressive as to require people to drink more than five liters of water per day even when they are not exerting themselves. The Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle-muskets used by most of the British troops in the middle of the 19th century had been mostly phased out and replaced by breech-loading Snider Enfield rifles starting in 1866 and Martini-Henry rifles in the mid-1870Ã¢â¬â¢s. Since Kipling was born in 1865, by the time he was able to observe and understand the things and people around him, soldiers no longer had to tear gun powder cartridges open with their teeth. But the smoke from the gunpowder charges was still a very strong desiccant, so a man who repeatedly fired his rifle would invariably develop a dry mouth. A dry mouth is also a physiological stress response, and since being shot at is stressful, even a soldier who is not breathing gunpowder smoke eventually empties his or her canteen. He or she cannot leave his or her position to get more water without giving up a tactical advantage. Hence the need for water resupply and the regimental bhisti. Another of KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies to depict a character quickly but vividly is to use a keyword to quickly establish location, time, and setting without the need for lengthy description. The keyword might be an allusion to a specific time or place, or it might carry cultural connotations. The speaker in Gunga Din makes use of the word bhisti, meaning Ã¢â¬Å"water-bearerÃ¢â¬ , however the word has a historical and cultural context. The Bhisti people are a endogamous community in northern India. They speak Urdu, using the Persian-Arabic script, but are conversant with whatever language is predominant in the region they live. In the present day they can be found in several of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s major cities working in various professions and trades. Some still carry water for a living. However in KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s day the need for manual water transport was far more urgent, and military water-bearers traveled wherever the regiment did. Kipling, who was born in India and who returned there as an adult, had an intimate and encyclopedic knowledge of India and its people. Living and working as he did in northern India and in the territory that eventually became Pakistan, Kipling associated with all manner of people in different castes and classes particularly through his military acquaintances and his Masonic connections. KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s first language was Hindi, which is related to Urdu but not identical, although he learned English early and wrote primarily in that tongue. Living as he did in northern India he could not have avoided crossing paths with at least a few ethnic Bhisti, and he had the language skills to speak with them. According to Bhisti history, the Bhisti were originally of the Rajput Hindu warrior caste. Like many groups within a given caste, they developed a professional specialty over the generations: bringing water to thirsty soldiers. At some point the majority of the Bhisti people accepted Islam, however their career specialty had by this time been elevated to a cultural commitment. Many Bhisti elected to serve whatever soldiers they could find, including the European armies from France and Britain that were fighting for political and economic control of the Indian subcontinent. In KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s era, there was an urgent and constant need for water on the front lines, so each regiment needed at least one designated water-carrier, and the Bhisti people were so successful in this role that their name, lacking its first capital letter, became synonymous with the role of water-carrier. Hence the Ã¢â¬Å"regimental bhisti, Gunga DinÃ¢â¬ . With one wordÃ¢â¬âjust oneÃ¢â¬âKipling establis hes Gunga Din as a man who carries water not just as a vocation but as an avocation. Another technique Kipling uses throughout his writing is pejorative or derogatory language directed by one person toward another to establish differences in relative status. Yet in Gunga Din, as in much of KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s prose including The Man Who Would Be King, characters that indulge in blatantly racist assumptions about the people around them generally turn out to be myopically wrong. The narrator in Gunga Din describes the bhisti as Ã¢â¬Å"black-facedÃ¢â¬ , dirty, and with a Ã¢â¬Å"squidgyÃ¢â¬ nose. Yet when he describes how Gunga Din went to tend the wounded under fire, the narrator describes him as being Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ inside. To a racist (which the narrator assuredly is), the highest possible compliment is to identify another person as behaving like a person of the racistÃ¢â¬â¢s own ethnic group. But the narrator does not know Gunga Din well. Although Gunga Din clearly speaks and understands enough English to convey an important and timely thought in a grammatic ally correct sentence even while dying, the narrator persists in bawling orders at him in bad Anglo-Hindustani. There is no significant friendship or social contact between the men, so overt conversations about deeper subjects such as religious faith or Gunga DinÃ¢â¬â¢s city of origin and native tongue cannot occur. If Gunga Din is HinduÃ¢â¬âwhich could perhaps be deduced given the loincloth he wore and the fact that he serves as a bhisti but is not necessarily an ethnic BhistiÃ¢â¬âthen carrying water to thirsty soldiers is part of his dharma or his religious duty. Receiving abuse from the troopers he aids is simply an inherent aspect of it, and taking the bad along with the good bothers him very little. When he brings water to the British soldiers and is hit by some of them because he is not physically capable of serving them all at once, he does not complain. Why would he: he is a man performing a divinely appointed sacrament. Indeed, the Shrimad Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 2, Verse 47 says: Ã¢â¬Å"Your right is to the duty only, not to the fruits thereof. Do not act for the results of your deeds. Never be attached to not doing the duty.Ã¢â¬ With Gunga DinÃ¢â¬â¢s dying breath, he has no regard for anything except whether he has adequately done his duty. He has: the drink he gives the nar rator, who survives only as a direct result of Gunga DinÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, is the drink the narrator describes as the sweetest and best he ever drank, despite the poor water quality. Accordingly, the absolute last place the narrator might see a Hindu Gunga Din would be in the Hell he envisions as appropriate for himself: Gunga Din must be reincarnated in a role proportionate to the adequacy of his service, which has been spectacular. If Gunga Din is not Hindu but Islamic, as are most ethnic Bhisti, then his attire is unusual but his level of linguistic fluency is not. Din is not only fluent in his native tongue, he speaks enough English to say something truly significant at the end of his life. Because most men raised in the Islamic tradition learn Arabic as well as their own native tongue, to better understand the teachings of the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an, if Gunga Din is Islamic he therefore most likely speaks not one, not two, but three languages: his own, Arabic, and enough English to understand the narrator and others. This makes him far more educated than the British soldier, who is blissfully unaware of the discrepancy. Illiteracy in the enlisted ranks was common in KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s India, and although sergeants had to be able to read and write in English the lower-ranked enlisted men did not. As a Sunni Muslim, Gunga Din would be familiar to the principle of submission to the will of Allah and to destiny: if Allah h ad decided that Gunga Din should be born a Bhisti, then by working as a water-bearer Gunga Din is fulfilling his spiritual destiny and serving Allah as well as the British soldiers. His selfless and tireless devotion to his work, the superb way in which he performs his duties without complaint, and his death in the service of others would therefore have certainly guaranteed him a place in Paradise according to the tenets of Islam. Indeed, even if Gunga Din did as many natives who served the British did, and converted to Christianity, he earned salvation either from that or from risking and even sacrificing his own life in order to save the narrator, which is a very noble, Christ-like act. Why, therefore, would the narrator expect to see Gunga Din in Hell, and still in a servitor capacity? It is because KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s narrator is supposed to be ignorant. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s part of what creates the pervasive irony. The narrator in Gunga Din betrays his ignorance repeatedly and ironically throughout the poem. Referring to Gunga Din as an Ã¢â¬Å"old idolÃ¢â¬ is offensive to both Hindus, who regard idols as physical representations and connections to their gods, and to Muslims who are forbidden to worship idols at all. He physically and verbally abuses the heroic water-bearer who routinely rescues wounded troopers under fire, including the narrator. However, at the end of the poem it becomes obvious that time has brought the narrator some perspective. He acknowledges that Gunga Din was in fact made by God, and also states that the bhisti he abused so frequently is actually a better man than himself. Thus the man in the Ã¢â¬Å"higherÃ¢â¬ social position eventually comes to the same conclusion the reader has already reached: it is the man farther down in the social hierarchy who displays a superior level of spirituality, service, courage, education, and service to others. The narrator in Tommy is also a British soldier, but instead of dishing out the abuse as the narrator in Gunga Din did, he receives it from British civilians. Kipling establishes the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s class and heritage through his patterns of speech, which is similar to that of the narrator in Gunga Din but lacking the Indian words and references. Kipling also uses keywords to establish the setting or location of the poem (England), the approximate time frame, and the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s own profession and relationship to the local civilians. These are radically different from the keywords used in Gunga Din, but the technique Kipling uses is the same. The first keywords that appear in the poem are Ã¢â¬Å"public-houseÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"pintÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"beerÃ¢â¬ . Beer, the quintessential British refreshment, is sold by the pint to the general public. Most of the establishments who specialize in the sale of beer are therefore called Ã¢â¬Å"public-housesÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"pubsÃ¢â¬ . Many Britons have a preferred pub or Ã¢â¬Å"localÃ¢â¬ where they go to socialize with friends after work. So a pint of beer in a pub is almost stereotypically British. But the narrator is unable to purchase libation because the Ã¢â¬Å"publicanÃ¢â¬ , or proprietor, refuses to serve Ã¢â¬Å"red-coatsÃ¢â¬ . So in two lines, Kipling establishes the location (England), the profession and gender of the speaker (a soldier, and by definition male in KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s day). Kipling also shows that the publican, a civilian, has the authority to refuse service to the soldier and that the serving-maids think the whole situation is funny. The keyword Ã¢â¬Å"red-coatÃ¢â¬ refers to the uniform of a soldier in the British Army or Marines. The colors were distinct from the British Navy, which favored blue and white. In India during KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s day, the British army had shifted away from the highly impractical red and white uniforms and issued military men khaki colored uniforms starting in 1948 and increasingly after the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857 as an indicator of a major change in British foreign policy. Accordingly, the term Ã¢â¬Å"red-coatÃ¢â¬ identifies the narrator as a Marine or Army soldier, but not someone serving in India. Kipling establishes the time as between 1861 and 1901 by referring to his military dress as Ã¢â¬Å"the WidowÃ¢â¬â¢s UniformÃ¢â¬ . The word Ã¢â¬Å"widowÃ¢â¬ is capitalized despite not being at the start of a sentence or a line, and since the narrator has already been established as a British soldier, the only head of state he could have been talking about is Queen Victoria. Queen Victoria was not widowed until the death of her first and only husband, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1861, although she dressed in black for the rest of her life. Her predecessor and successor, William IV and Edward VII respectively, were both male. But, had Kipling used the word Ã¢â¬Å"QueenÃ¢â¬ to refer to her instead, the poem could have been set as early as 1837. Tommy has an unusual naming convention that illustrates the extent to which the narrator and his fellow soldiers are dehumanized. The narrator is referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"TommyÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"AtkinsÃ¢â¬ , both of which were generic names for a British soldier, but that are most likely not the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s real name. The people speaking to the narrator are strangers whom he most likely has never met. Kipling never uses the soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s real name or shows the civilians interacting with him as a human being. In this respect he is shown even less respect by his fellow Englishmen than the narrator of Gunga Din showed to the water-bearer. Ã¢â¬Å"TommyÃ¢â¬ and his fellow soldiers are either despised or exalted based on whether the nation is at war. Both images are equally unrealistic, particularly when even the positive behaviors of the public treat soldiers like nameless, fungible members of a group instead of as the individual human beings they actually are. Throughout the poem, the narrator in Tommy relates how he is treated poorly by English civilians during peacetime: he is refused service in a pub, turned away from a theater (while sober) in favor of a drunk civilian, and generally treated like a criminal. But when Ã¢â¬Å"the guns begin to shootÃ¢â¬ , the narrator and his fellow soldiers are treated like heroes even if they havenÃ¢â¬â¢t personally done anything heroic. This situational irony is so blatant that even the low-ranking, poorly educated Tommy recognizes and resents it. That Ã¢â¬Å"TommyÃ¢â¬ is an enlisted soldier as opposed to an officer is quite evident even though Kipling does not need to state it overtly: the use of Cockney patois suffices. Officers, in KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s era, were almost always literate, educated men from families wealthy enough to pay for their commission. The higher the officerÃ¢â¬â¢s rank, the higher his probable (or assumed) social connections. An officer was assumed to be a gentleman in terms of social conduct, habits, and peer relationships even if he was not descended from a financially independent family. So no publican or theater employee would be inclined to anger one by denying him service. In Tommy, as in Gunga Din, Kipling drops a bombshell in the last line of the poem. The narrator, who begins by using the first person singular to describe his personal anecdotal experience, expands in the second-last stanza to use the first person plural. It is now Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ who are the soldiers who are most remarkably like the reader. The narrator is gathering strength and is now speaking as representative of a group when he asks that people simply have reasonable expectations of soldiers, and that soldiers be treated Ã¢â¬Å"rationallyÃ¢â¬ based on their individual traits and behaviors instead of as representatives of some amorphous red-coated blob. But in the final line, Kipling shifts suddenly into the third person: Ã¢â¬Å"AnÃ¢â¬â¢ Tommy ainÃ¢â¬â¢t a bloominÃ¢â¬â¢ foolÃ¢â¬âyou bet that Tommy sees!Ã¢â¬ HeÃ¢â¬â¢s now issuing a direct warning to the civilians and upper-class people whose insistence on interacting with soldiers in unrealistic, exaggerated ways both positive and negative. Their stupidity and hypocrisy are not going unnoticed, and in fact every single Ã¢â¬Å"TommyÃ¢â¬ in a red uniform is perfectly aware of it. Generally it is the upper classes that rebuke the lower ones. For an enlisted soldier, treated by many as the lowest of the low, to not only rebuke but subtly threaten the citizens his army serves, is a dramatic inversion of class. By identifying himself, and all other soldiers, as being perfectly capable of seeing and acknowledging the hypocrisy that everybody else seems to miss, the poorly-educated Tommy flips the script intellectually the same way Gunga Din did morally and spiritually: he proves, by his deduction and analysis, to be more intellectually capable than the people who shun and criticize him. Gentlemen-Rankers describes a different kind of class inversion. In this case, the title describes men who have voluntarily come down in class, and who have placed themselves under the authority of men who under regular circumstances would have been considered beneath them in social status. In KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s day, military officers typically came from the upper class and received a particular education both social and academic. A Ã¢â¬Å"gentlemanÃ¢â¬ , in the terminology of the day, was a man who was well off enough to live off of his land and invested assets, who did not have to perform manual labor in order to feed himself or his family. Originally the term implied landed gentry, but after the agricultural depression in the 1870s the British economy shifted away from land as a means of production and toward industry. Accordingly, merchants, bankers, and other business owners became wealthy enough to raise their children and grandchildren in a privileged environment so that by th e third generation their values, behaviors, and life experiences were virtually indistinguishable from those of the landed gentry, with whom they frequently intermarried. Military service was considered an appropriate pursuit for a young gentleman, but he generally entered it as an officer by buying a commission. The British military of KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s era was characterized by a vast social gulf between the officer and enlisted classes, however there was also a great deal of mutual respect. The officers respected the skills, toughness, and raw courage of the men they commanded; the enlisted men who came from the working class respected their officers for their education, intelligence, wisdom, and kindness. This mutual respect and trust helped build the military discipline that made Britain into a dominant colonial power. However the respect was not automatic and it was not conferred on a man simply for having a specific rank. When a man didnÃ¢â¬â¢t belong and was noticeably different from his peers, despite his competence in other matters he was frequently denied respect from men above, below, and equal to him in rank. Although there were means by which an enlisted man could be promoted to lieutenant, it was not a process deemed universally good. The Duke of Wellington and General Redvers Buller, writing nearly half a century apart, asserted that officers promoted from the enlisted ranks were seldom good or effective even if men so promoted had been officers in the past. The enlisted men preferred officers who were gentlemen, believing them to be better educated in matters of military strategy and also less cruel. Gentlemen typically only joined the enlisted ranks if they were somehow disgraced and needed to hide overseas, far away from creditors, family, or law enforcement. In exchange for the anonymity of the uniform, a man sacrificed his social standing not just for the moment, but permanently. In Gentlemen-Rankers, Kipling uses specific literary techniques to show the implications of the young manÃ¢â¬â¢s decision and the sense of alienation he experiences as a result. As always, Kipling uses a speaking style as evidence of the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s class. The gentleman-ranker speaks without dropping letters or using slang. His use of compound sentences and his references to the Bible and to ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet mark him as an educated man. Although he is now a lowly trooper, he Ã¢â¬Å"has run his own six horsesÃ¢â¬ : that is to say, he was once wealthy enough to own half a dozen prize racehorses, and skilled enough to ride them himself. The implication is that the narrator has lost all his wealth, perhaps through gambling or some other disgraceful action, and has accordingly enlisted to serve overseas. The fact his uniform includes a spur, sewn onto his jacket in worsted as evidence of his outstanding riding skills, now embarrasses him. Every time someone calls him a Ã¢â¬Å"RiderÃ¢â¬ (ordinarily a title of respect) or sends him on an errand on horseback, it reminds him of what he has lost. He therefore feels himself Ã¢â¬Å"brandedÃ¢â¬ b y what to most enlisted men would be a coveted insignia. The Shakespearean reference Ã¢â¬Å"a little more than kin, and less than kindÃ¢â¬ is HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s cutting remark about his uncle Claudius, who becomes HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s stepfather by marrying his late brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. The world was Ã¢â¬Å"more than kinÃ¢â¬ while the narrator had money enough to indulge himself and everybody else, but now the Sergeant is Ã¢â¬Å"less than kindÃ¢â¬ in two ways: he is fundamentally unlike the narrator, having been born to a class appropriate to the enlisted ranks, and he also fails to show the narrator the deference, and courtesy he is used to receiving from such men in his former life. The habits that mark a gentlemanÃ¢â¬âriding well, waltzing well, and lacking the unlamblike aggression valued among the men of the working classÃ¢â¬ânow set the narrator up as a target of ridicule. He lacks the natural aptitude and early training of his enlisted peers, but he finds himself absorbing some of their values: literally thrashing somebody for remarking on his dancing skills, and figuratively drowning himself in beer. Yet the extent to which the soldier now feels trapped by his circumstances only becomes clear because of KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s use of sarcasm. Kipling repeatedly uses the word Ã¢â¬Å"sweetÃ¢â¬ to sarcastically describe things about which the young gentleman now feels bitter: mucking out stalls, emptying kitchen slops, and socializing with enlisted men and servants. Whereas the men around him accept occasional duties as a normal part of their routine, the narrator has been raised to believe the work is offensive and shameful. He feels himself degraded perma nently as a result of having done it. That is one reason he envies the simple man who blacks his boots and sometimes accidentally calls him Ã¢â¬Å"sirÃ¢â¬ . To the narrator in Gentlemen-Rankers, his class inversionÃ¢â¬âthough voluntaryÃ¢â¬âhas been a grotesque mistake. He feels himself degraded by having to share a whitewashed room with a man who snores or mutters drunkenly. The guilt he experiences as a result of not writing home or of not keeping various unspecified oaths he swore is not sufficient to make him actually pick up a pen or follow through on his promises, but it is enough to wake him up at night. To relieve his self-inflicted pain, he drugs himself and considers it a justifiable behavior. KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s narrator makes allusion to the Curse of Reuben, a Biblical character who was disinherited for having had sexual relations with one of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s concubines. Reuben was not exiled, but was deprived of his birthright as eldest in favor of one of his younger brothers. Disinherited perhaps, and certainly shamed, the narrator feels as though he can never come home. The extreme shame he experiences is something he views as more than ample punishment for whatever crime preceded his enlistment. Unlike the gentleman-ranker who has fallen from his former station in life, the other soldiers do not believe that they have lost all form of hope, honor, love, and truth. They have no problem dancing with the Ã¢â¬Å"blowzy housemaidsÃ¢â¬ the narrator regards with such scorn, and they do not regard themselves as sheep of any sortÃ¢â¬âlost lambs, black sheep, or otherwise. Whereas the enlisted people surrounding the narrator appear to function perfectly in their surroundings without bleating over what they do not have, the narrator is nearly paralyzed with a combination of guilt, shame, disgust, and bitterness. Despite his perceived advantages of birth and early education, and despite having been taught from birth to display stoicism and the Ã¢â¬Å"stiff upper lipÃ¢â¬ so prized in British tradition, the narrator is not functioning as an adult. His work does not tax him to the point of exhaustion, nor is it beyond his intellectual capability. He is simply a prisoner of his own negative emotions and is self-medicating with alcohol and possibly other substances as well. Finally, Kipling uses irony to illustrate how sometimes people donÃ¢â¬â¢t appreciate what they have until they lose it permanently. Until the gentleman-ranker actually experiences the loss of his privileged social position, and with it any meaningful form of connection to the people around him, he does not appreciate it. His more accurate perspective, and his ability to experience actual remorse for his actions, is possible only after he is stripped of all his pride and everything he holds dear. Had he remained a gentleman and found some other way to atone for whatever he did wrong, he may never have achieved the same level of insight he has now. KiplingÃ¢â¬â¢s use of class inversion subtly undermines the notion that people higher up in social hierarchy are better, smarter, or more spiritually advanced than the people Ã¢â¬Å"beneathÃ¢â¬ them. By using specific literary techniques such as dialect and keywords to establish the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s class, and to contrast the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences and perspectives with the other people in the poem, Kipling creates an ironic contrast between the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s level of enlightenment and his perceived social worth relative to others. References The Bible, Genesis 49:4 (NIV) Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Act I, Scene II. Shaw, James A. Officers and Gentlemen: Gentlemanly Mystique and Military Effectiveness in the Nineteenth-Century British Army. Copyright 2011 by James A. Shaw, published May 14, 2011. MilitaryHistoryOnline.com Shrimad Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 2, Verse 47 Bhisti http://sanskrit-quote.blogspot.com/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhishti
Friday, June 5, 2020
Health Communication: Abuse Of Cognitive Enhancement Drugs (Term Paper Sample) Content: Health CommunicationStudent NameInstitutional AffiliationHealth CommunicationIntroductionThe society today is witnessing increasing cases of non-medical use of pharmaceuticals, primarily regarded as drug abuse. In the majority of the cases, users have turned into drug abuse of prescribed medication to make them feel high or alleviate processes such as sleep, resulting in the use of heroin and associated drugs. Users of these drugs were mainly regarded as narcotic users and comprised of unprofessional people with limited success in life leading to their consequent abuse of drugs. However, this is changing today, with the emergence of cognitive enhancing drugs, with the users of the drugs, often compared to caffeine or painkillers, often professions like medicine creating confusion on the abuse of the drugs. Through this, it is clear that lack of a precise definition and understanding of the drug and their overall effects on the body means the society cannot understand the repercussions of cognitive enhancers and only speculate the motivation behind extensive government restriction on their use. In this paper, I, therefore, set to explore the use of cognitive enhancers in the society, prevalence and factors determining their use, ethical and other effects associated with cognitive enhancement drugs.Abuse of cognitive enhancement drugsPrescription drug abuse, which is defined as the use of prescription drugs for reasons other than those prescribed for by a qualified healthcare professional, is a growing health problem in the world. In America, more than 48 million people above the age of 12 years have used prescription drugs for non-medical purposes, the classes of drugs ranging from opioids to stimulants or central nervous system depressants. Abuse of prescription stimulants, in particular, the use of prescription stimulants for non-medical purposes is on the rise, with a survey on adolescents and young youth population in North America showing t he rate to range between 5 percent and 35 percent (Racine Forlini, 2010). Drugs such as Modafinil, Ritalin, Donepezil, and other medications used for the treatment of people with cognitive ravages such as dementia and Alzheimers disease are the most abused as their development aims at improving the mental state and capabilities of the sick people. Their ability to enhance cognition not only in the people who have Alzheimer or dementia but also to healthy individuals contribute to the increased cases of abuse.Moreover, randomized tests on Modanifil had been initiated in the military and shown to improve performance, notably the simulator performance of helicopter pilots. Furthermore, not only do these drugs have the capacity to enhance recall and maintain wakefulness, but some also can improve executive function during goals oriented problem solving (Mehlman, 2004). Although no extensive studies have been carried out to ascertain these assumptions and personal testimonies, people ar e actively seeking out the drugs to improve their cognitive functioning, disregarding the extensive government regulations and purported side effects warning on the abuse of these drugs. This may also be because the use of drugs to enhance cognitive function is not a new case as caffeine has been used as a stimulant for many years, and people consuming it in large dosage have shown signs of improved functioning, a fact that is paralleled to the new class of amphetamines. The increasing cases of abuse are however a cause of alarm given the drugs have not been certified for use in enhancing cognitive capacity, and also as the extensive research on diseases such as Alzheimers disease is bound to lead to an increased amount of these drugs in the market and consequently increased negative effect cases.Medial, ethical, legal and social concerns are associated with abuse of cognitive enhancement medications. Just like abuse of other medications, their use may be accompanied by deleterious side effects in some individuals including toxicity, psychological or physical dependence on the same. Lack of data on these products is, however, concerning, this limiting the understanding of the possible effects of the drugs. With the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requiring all manufacturers to provide data on the drugs and their safety levels, some manufacturers seek to obtain approval of the sale of their products by claiming they are for a given non-medical purposes while instead, they end up being abused as cognitive enhancers (Mehlman, 2004). For example, Allergan was allowed by the FDA to market Botox but omitted detail on a labelling on the use of its product on the perpetuated use in the elimination of glabellar lines.The law allows physicians to prescribe a drug approved for one purpose for use in any other capacity. This has allowed many types of medication to be applied for off-label nontherapeutic purposes, including for the enhancement of cognitive ability. Wi th no efficacy or safety data on these products, their use exposes the people to unknown medical side effects, and with the condition of the regulatory protocols, their data cannot be easily obtained. It is this lack of availability of data that further exacerbate the medical effects of this class of drugs as they may be present and persistent in the individuals but the abusers may not be aware of them, confusing these with other complications.The government through the drug regulatory bodies have failed to curb the increasing rate of abuse of cognitive enhancing drugs because of the overlapping scenarios, lack of clearly defined measures allowing abusers and physicians to continue applying the medications. For example, a physician may be liable to be charged if the patient incurs an injury from the prescribed off-label drug, but it may prove impossible for the judge to ascertain that the physician was aware of the dangerous effects of the drug before administration. This is primari ly because a lack of data on the drug would mean the physician was also not aware of the dangers posed by the drug, and it was above his ability to determine the probability of causing harm. The manufacturer can also not be held liable for such an off-label case as the law illustrates that a drug is only regarded as unsafe if it were unsafe for every group of patientsEthical issues on using the product.Although the uncertainty of the negative effects of the drugs trends among the people, they are unmoved by the potential dangers associated with abuse of cognitive enhancing drugs. Enhanced use of these drugs especially in sports to enhance the performance of an athlete, and in the military during combat insinuate there is likely to be an increase in their use in future, regardless of there being enough evidence on their effect to the body or not. Their use has also been recorded in the medical field, with surgeons exposed to high workloads using them to reduce fatigue and promote con centration while working (Franke et al., 2013; Larriviere, Williams, Rizzo, Bonnie, 2009). Performance enhancing capability of the drugs has also been tapped in other fields with employees today using them to improve their functionality and consequently their input in a firm. With the drugs associated with enhanced cognitive capacity, schools under pressure to perform better on standardized tests or parents may distribute the cognitive enhancement drugs to the student to improve their performance. In this way, the people may feel cornered and forced to use the drugs, therefore meaning any government initiatives to restrict or prohibit their use may have insignificant results and thereby exposing people not only to the medical effects but also to the social impact of the drugs (Vrecko, 2013). Ultimately these practices may push more and more people into using the drugs, leading to a scenario whereby the people have a heightened functionality but ...
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Adriel Morel 7/18/15 It starts with a trip to Urban Outfitters According to the article Ã¢â¬Å"Native American Headdresses Facts for KidsÃ¢â¬ , 18th and 19th century Plain Indians (Native Americans who resided on the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies) introduced the world to the Feathered war bonnet as a way to place honor and respect among the men who demonstrated bravery and valor. The article explains that during the time, Plain Native American tribes sought to see the eagle as the greatest and best bird amongst all birds; symbolizing strength and fearlessness, which is why the feathered war bonnets were made from eagle feathers. The articles statesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Acts that would guarantee you a feather(s) were, bravery during war, political prosperity or gain, acts of valor, and other things that mightÃ¢â¬â¢ve helped the tribe prosper or survive. Some warriors would only be awarded 3 to 4 feathers in their lifetime; hence the difficulty of obtaining a complete full headdress. Keeping in mind the fact that pro curing a single feather means actually demonstrating honorable acts, itÃ¢â¬â¢s pretty evident as to why the headdress was an important custom of the Plain Native Americans. Likewise, the article Ã¢â¬Å"Native American Technology and Art: Dream CatchersÃ¢â¬ makes the statement that the dreamcatcher was a Native American custom that developed from the Ojibwe people and was later adopted by other surrounding and neighboring tribes. The legend holds that a spider women by the name of Asibikaashi took care of the people and the land of the Ojibwe people. Eventually the people from the tribe spread out all over North America and it became difficult for the spider women to reach and protect all her children. Eventually, grandmothers and mothers would weave a magical web for the children which would then form the dreamcatchers. The dreamcatcher was usually hung somewhere over the children and would filter out the bad dreams and only let positive thoughts and dreams in. When the sun ros e, all negative energy would disappear as the sun light
Sunday, May 17, 2020
One of the most controversial debates in this era is the issue of national language in the United States. Although many countries have declared English as their official language, the U.S. bicameral chambers have persisted to recognize English as the official language. In his article, Ã¢â¬Å"In Plain English: LetÃ¢â¬â¢s Make It Official,Ã¢â¬ Charles Krauthammer reflects on contrasting viewpoints in our nation regarding this matter, and supports his idea that a comprehensive plan for ensuring the rights of languages should be passed by the legislative bodies. He believes that AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s great success has been the astonishing capacity for acculturation with its influence of English language, and that immigrants are more conforming to English (LEO 707).Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In this process of acculturation the immigrants are impel to harmonize with a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s traditions. Nevertheless, Krauthammer believes that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s representatives in congress have obstacles to define the dominance of English language in law (707). Throughout his article, Krauthammer uses different examples of immigrants that speak in different languages, but they all tend to be the citizens of the United States. For instance, he believes that residents in Brooklyn are from different ethnicities. But they all speak their mother tongues, and none of them is a threat to our common culture. Krauthammer claims that Ã¢â¬Å"He [Brooklyn resident] may speak it in the street and proudly teach it to his childrenÃ¢â¬ , but he knows very well that Ã¢â¬Å"learning EnglishÃ¢â¬ is the Ã¢â¬Å"gateway to American lifeÃ¢â¬ (707). By providing these facts he believes that the American traditions will be preserved from cultural diversities if English is recognized as the official language. As we rise to the challenges of our time, Krauthammer believes that we are now experiencing an enormous influx of immigration from Latin American countries (LMO 708). This new enormous shift in the society impacts social matters radically. As historical evidence he states that if Ellis Island had the majority of German speaking people rather than its native speakers, America couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t enjoy the success of national unityShow MoreRelatedWhy Is The United States A Multicultural Nation With An Alienated Multi Cultural Environment?1307 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUnited States a multicultural nation with an alienated multi-cultural environment? Ã¢â¬Å"It would be nice if every citizen was literate in English, but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not the caseÃ¢â¬ (Mercer). There are different situations that are still in debate within the American Nation. One of them is the bilingual ballots, which allow non-native English speakers to participate in the elections and contribute with their votes. Another t opic is the United States not having an official language as do other countries since itRead MoreThe Building Of A Nation1576 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe building of a nation is a complex and lengthy process. There is no step-by-step plan, nor a prescribed formula. It is a combination of features, structures and socially constructed norms. A Ã¢â¬ËnationÃ¢â¬â¢ is an intrinsically ambiguous term. Questions consistently arise like, Ã¢â¬Ëwho defines a nation?Ã¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëwhat defines a nation?Ã¢â¬â¢ The building of a nation explicitly links with the modern state, ethnicity and industrialisation. Ethnicity is a key feature of this and synonymous with identity, it is the mostRead MoreFicial Language Of The United States933 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesgovernment not making it the official language of the United States? (Mujica). A lot of people have been arguing about this topic for decades. So far, the American Congress has declined all the charges to make English the official lang uage. The Congress claims that it may be an infringement of individual rights. Nevertheless, making English the official language of The United States will significantly benefit the American people. It will create a sense of union among the nation as well as help in decreasingRead MoreHistory of Nationalism1041 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesNationalism The word nation has evolved from the Latin word natio whose literal meaning translates to that which has been born (Douglas) . The concept of a nation can be explained in laymans words as a group of people that have been united for a common purpose, and who share a common identity of one form or another. This common identity may be a common language, history, ethnicity, culture, etc. It sometimes can also be used to refer to people sharing common territory such as a nation state, even thoughRead MoreThe Blackfoot Nation Essay963 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCanada and the United States there are many First Nations languages which are a part of the Algonquian language family, all of which with varying states of health. Although these languages share many characteristics of the Algonquian language family, the cultures, systems of beliefs, and geographic location of their respective Nations differentiate them. In being shaped by the landscape, cultures, and spirituality of the First Nations, t he language brings the speakers closer to their land and traditionsRead MoreEssay about English Must be the Official Language in America994 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA countryÃ¢â¬â¢s strength comes solely on the social theory of nationalism, to give loyalty and love for that country even if it means sacrificing ones own life to defend it. Whether its called the homeland, motherland, or holy land, citizens of a country define it, if not, its really just a large mass of land. The United States of America has instituted many rights to its citizens, which were issued in the bill of rights they are the first ten amendments. The first amendment mentions the free exerciseRead More Carl Sandburgs View of Language Essay1031 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesView of Language Carl Sandburgs poem Languages is a poem about how languages can change over time. On the surface level, it compares the evolution of language to the formation of a river. At the same time, however, it makes a statement on why languages are difficult to label and mark. The lines dividing languages blur very easily. Languages There are no handles upon a language Whereby men take hold of it And mark it with signs for its remembrance. It is a river, this language, OnceRead MoreThe United States Should Have English As Ficial Language1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEnglish as the official language.Ã¢â¬ I am interested about this topic because surprisingly the U.S doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have an official language. Many people believe that it is because almost everyone speaks it and every place requires it. When in fact it is not the official language and the U.S doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t even have one. I will be writing this paper as a debate of why we should and shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have an official language even though I will be more leaning to the side of having an official language. The United States shouldRead MoreLegacies Of Bandung : Decolonization And The Politics Of Culture Analysis1222 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescolonizing countries Great Britain sticks out the most. Great Britain has been colonizing different countries and nations for years. Great Britain colonized most of South Asia and Africa. For many years these countries and nations were under rule by Europe or Western ways. The thing is, that in ways this could be a good thing. As said above this typically happens when a country or nation falls short of advancements and or power. Being colonized by a country that is advanced and has a larger amountRead MoreIs Canada a Nation?1167 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe concept of nationhood is a complex one. What makes a country a nation? What is a nation? In this essay, we will attempt to gain an understanding of what a nation is, and why Canada is in fact a nation, not merely because we meet certain criteria, but because we, as Canadians, believe it is so. To define the term Ã¢â¬Å"nationÃ¢â¬ is quite a challenging task. The StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Oxford Canadian Dictionary defines a nation as, Ã¢â¬Å"a community of people forming a state or inhabiting a territoryÃ¢â¬ (Barber, et al
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Henry David Thoreau, author of Ã¢â¬Å"Civil DisobedienceÃ¢â¬ and Walden, has become one of the most influential authors of all time in the eyes of many. Though some might be led to believe his essays and writings, including Ã¢â¬Å"Where I Lived, and What I lived ForÃ¢â¬ , make him a down to earth and even rugged author, as he spent some of his life in the forest. However, his life in the woods was not one of heavy duty work and he often was supported with objects and material possessions, contrary to what many of his essays describe. Although some might think of him as a cheater or a liar, ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s conflicting lifestyles prove him to be a literary genius as he successfully dictates a lifestyle he himself does not take part in throughout paragraphs oneÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦While Thoreau continues to paint himself in a brilliant light, he also rejects the opinions of the outside world with specific allusions and similes. He manages to put himself and decisions on an implicit pedestal, disguising it as manÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for material possession and complexity. By referencing the Ã¢â¬Å"German Confederacy, made of up petty statesÃ¢â¬ (Paragraph 2), Thoreau intertwines both connotation and a relevant allusion to current events at the time. This gives ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s readers a chance to connect with his writing and believe that they are the problem for not dropping their belongings and bounding into the nearest forest to live a life of modesty. He also uses colloquialism to simultaneously draw his readers in while alienating himself from the common issues of man, Ã¢â¬Å"The nation itself, with all its so-called internal improvements, which, by the way are all external and superficial, is just such an unwieldy and overgrown establishment, cluttered with furniture and tripped up by its own traps,Ã¢â¬ (Paragraph 2). The famous authorÃ¢â¬â¢s special attention to colloquialisms, including Ã¢â¬Å"so-calledÃ¢â¬ , create an atmosphere famili ar to his readers. However, his decision to mention furniture and traps conflict with Thoreaus own ideas of a materialist lifestyle. Even as simply uses hyperboles to get a point across, Ã¢â¬Å"Men say thatShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Civil Disobedience By Henry David Thoreau1886 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAfrican slave trade that culminated in the American Civil War, the loss of one of the greatest presidents in U.S. history, Abraham Lincoln, and, more fittingly for this paper, the emergence of American transcendentalist writers. One writer in particular was Henry David Thoreau, who many historians consider to be the inventor of nonviolent protest as a means of reforming a government. This concept is explained in detail in his piece, Civil Disobedience, where he excellently argues that governments areRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Civil Disobedience By Henry David Thoreau1219 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesignorant to the problems others faced. In the essay Ã¢â¬Å"Civil DisobedienceÃ¢â¬ by He nry David Thoreau, Thoreau spent a night in jail for refusing to pay his taxes. After his night in jail, the author has a perspective change about the people around him (his Ã¢â¬Å"neighborsÃ¢â¬ ) and the state. Before he went to jail he thought of his neighbors as friends who were civil when it did not cost them anything and he believed they shared common beliefs. But after Thoreau was imprisoned he says Ã¢â¬Å"that they did not greatlyRead MoreHenry David Thoreau Resistance To Civil Disobedience Analysis1508 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDuring the era of the civil disobedience, individuals took stand and fight for their rights. the government took actions that violated the rights of others or took restrictions that angered residence. Resistance to civil government by Henry David Thoreau is an essay written about his opinion on opposing the government that was taking control of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s rights, motivating his disagreement of slavery and the Mexican-American war. Mahatma Gandhi, a leader who fought for the Indians independent movementRead MoreLessons in Civil Disobedience828 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto its effectiveness, individualism, and past history of the world that has made immense progress. It is important to notice that if civil disobedience was not effective, then it would not be continually used to disobey the law. In The Role of Civil Disobedience in DemocracyÃ¢â¬ by Kayla Starr, she explains why we have the right to participate in civil disobedience. Ã¢â¬Å"The U.S. Bill of Rights asserts that the authority of a government is derived from the consent of the governed, and whenever any formRead MoreThe Effect Of Transcendentalism : Henry David Thoreau1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Effect of Transcendentalism: Henry David Thoreau Transcendentalism is the American literary, political, and philosophical movement of the early nineteenth century that was rooted in the pure Romanticism of the English and the German (Goodman). Ralph Waldo Emerson is considered the father of Transcendentalism because his literature is the first to praise the notable spirituality of nature. The basic belief of the movement is to live authentically; being true to oneself (Day). The movement itselfRead MoreHenry David Thoreau1930 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesBiographical Summary Henry David Thoreau was born on July 12, 1817 in Concord, Massachusetts, and was the son of John Thoreau, a pencil maker, and Cynthia Dunbar (Ã¢â¬Å"HenryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ency. of World). Growing up in a Ã¢â¬Å"modest New England family,Ã¢â¬ Thoreau was one of four children and was accustomed to living practically (McElroy). As his family was Ã¢â¬Å"permanently poor,Ã¢â¬ he came to accept a moderate lifestyle, which may have later influenced his thoughts on the necessities of life (Ã¢â¬Å"HenryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ency. of World). As aRead MoreHenry David Thoreau: The Grat Transcendentalist Essay1932 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesHenry David Thoreau along with a select group of people propelled the short movement of transcendentalism during the 1830s to the 1850s and was later brought up during the Vietnam War. Many of the transcendentalist ideas came from student who attended Harvard University during this time period. Henry David ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s individualistic anarchist views on society we re developed throughout his early life and later refined in his years of solitude; these views on society and government are directly expressedRead MoreEssay about Henry David Thoreaus Enlightenment and Ideas 1355 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Civil Disobedience is one of Henry David Thoreaus most famous essays. One of the major problems most critics see with this essay deals with Thoreaus seemingly contradictory statements about society from the beginning to the end. Barry Wood, a well-known critical writer, attributes this change in beliefs to the enlightenment of Thoreau in jail. While I agree with Wood that Thoreau does achieve a form of enlightenment, I will show that Thoreaus views regarding the society he lived in neverRead MoreCivil Disobedience By Henry David Thoreaus Letter From A Birmingham Jail1605 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesToday I will be comparing Civil Disobedience by Henry David Thoreau and The Letter from a Birmingham Jail by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr and taking a closer l ook at their rhetorical devices and strategyÃ¢â¬â¢s. In Civil disobedience by Henry David Thoreau shows us the need to prioritize some oneÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeing over what the law says. American laws are criticized mostly over slavery and the Mexican-American war. In Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.Ã¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Letter from a Birmingham JailÃ¢â¬ was written in response to a letterRead MoreTranscendentalism : The And The Movement1027 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesa reaction against the general state of intellectualism. During what years did the movement occur? The Transcendentalist movement occurred during the 1820s, and 1830s. List 5 major authors associated with the movement Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson, Explain what Transcendentalist believed about each of the following topics: Human Nature They were to live independently, all you need is your mind, knowledge is born with. They also believed that an institution
In many novels the title of the story is more important than most people initially think. It often reveals important information about the story. In The Catcher In the Rye, Holden says that his dream job would to be the catcher in rye. This is significant to the story because of how Holden feels that adults are trying to ruin the innocence of children, and how he can be the one that saves them. Holden then realizes he cannot always be the one to save the children. This is show throughout the book but especially in the scene where Holden takes Phoebe to the carousel.This shows that Holden wants to be the catcher in the rye so that he can help keep the children their innocence from adults. Almost everybody in the Catcher In the Rye getsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Thousands of little kids, and nobodys around - nobody big, I mean - except me. ( Salinger 224) It shows that in Holden ideal world is that he would be the oldest person one there, and he could be the one who saves them, no t an adult. Holden wishes that someone could have caught him. The person that Holden caught him is Allie. When Allie passes away the thing that Holden decides to save is Allies glove, which is used for catching. Even though Allie is dead Holden still acts like he is there to help. When Holden has this illusion that he will disappear when the turns the corner, he says, Allie, dont let me disappear, and when I reached the other side of the street without disappearing I would thank him. ( Salinger 257) This shows that Holden still asks Allie for help and imagines that he had him to help him, to catch him when he had problems. Holden wants to catch the children before they turn out to be like him, sad and depressed all the time. Holden tries to erase all problems for children that he faces. Holden soon realizes that he cannot keep the all the children safe all by himself. When he encounters the curse words on the staircase wall for the second time he again immediately tries to remo ve it. However, this time the vulgar terms are scratched on to the wall. Holden is not able to remove it, no matter how hard he tries. This shows that no matter how hard he tries in helping the children keep their innocence, he willShow MoreRelatedThe Theme Of Innocence In The Catcher In The Rye1222 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand lack of innocence on and off the camera. In this show young girls were depicted as acting like older, maturer, looking young women, who compete in beauty pageants. However, during this pageant stricken era, we have to realize that young childlike innocence has vanished. Although Holden Caulfield is a fictional character, he would not stand for these kinds of issues. Through SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s use of symbolism and HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s views, he depicts the message of innocence. In The Catcher in the Rye, HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s hypocriticalRead MoreTheme Of Innocence In Catcher In The Rye1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢d just be a catcher in the rye and all. I know itÃ¢â¬â¢s crazy, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s the only thing IÃ¢â¬â¢d really like to be.Ã¢â¬ ( Salinger 191)) In The Catcher in the Rye, a harrowed teenager named Holden Caulfield canÃ¢â¬â¢t accept the fact that everyone has to grow up. He believes that every adult in some way is corrupted in a sense. He also believes that children are the only genuine thing in the world due to their innocence and their purity. Salinger employs adult situations in HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to emphasize that lossRead MoreTheme Of Innocence In Catcher In The Rye812 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesas much as the prospect of remaining unhappy.Ã¢â¬ -Unknown. Innocence is something we all fall out of eventually, whether we like it or not, yet not all of us are ready to. The edge of innocence is something Holden, the main character, struggles with in the novel The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, and though thereÃ¢â¬â¢s always trouble, he is still able to learn from these struggles and grow into a young adult. As Holden denies his own innocence, he tends to forget what heÃ¢â¬â¢s speaking about in the firstRead MoreLord Of The Flies, By William Golding And The Perks Of Being A Wallflower1087 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessome of my most beloved. In my junior year, I read A Separate Peace by John Knowles for my AP U.S. History class while I read The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger over the summer. A Separate Peace explores the rivalry that can lie at the heart of many friendships and conveys the concept of individuality rather than conformity. Similarly, The Catcher in the Rye is the story of a teenage boy who despises the phoniness of society and fears becoming just another phony adult. Both novels share similarRead MorePreservation of Innocence In The Catcher in the Rye Essay545 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThemes in literary works are central, recurring ideas or messages that allow us to understand more deeply about the characters. It is a perception about life or human nature that is often shar ed with the reader. In The Catcher in the Rye, there are several themes that can be found in the words and actions of the narrator, Holden Caulfield. The dominating theme in this novel is the preservation of innocence, especially of children. We can see this throughout the novel, as Holden strives to preserveRead More Catcher in the Rye Essay: Levels of Meaning902 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Levels of Meaning in The Catcher in the Rye nbsp; Protected by a cocoon of naivetÃ ©, Holden Caulfield, the principal character in the novel, The Catcher in the Rye, therapeutically relates his lonely 24 hour stay in downtown New York city, experiencing the phony adult world while dealing with the death of his innocent younger brother.nbsp; Through this well-developed teenage character, JD Salinger, uses simple language and dialogue to outline many of the complex underlying problems hauntingRead MoreCatcher in the Rye vs Frankenstein Novel Study Essay1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIndependent Novel Study In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, innocence cannot be preserved forever. As humans age, they lose their innocence due to the corruption that exists in society. This is demonstrated in the two novels, Catcher in the Rye and Frankenstein. The two authors, J.D. Salinger and Mary Shelley prove this statement through their use of various literary devices. Key characters in both novels- Holden and the creature- learn through personal experiences that innocence cannot, in fact, be preserved foreverRead MoreHolden Caulfield and the Pressures of Society: The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger1286 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesoften have a message or theme for the reader. Not only do authors use themes, but also well developed characters to bring a novel to life. In the bildungsroman, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, characterization is often found, especially regarding the protagonist, Holden Caulfield. Salinger also includes many themes in his novel relating to growing up in a corrupt society. Hence, this paper will compare, contrast, and evaluate literary criticisms regarding the themes and characterizationRead MoreCatcher Rye And Perfect Day For Bananafish1562 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The Catcher in The Rye and Perfect Day For Bananafish In Ã¢â¬Å"The Catcher in the RyeÃ¢â¬ ,by J.D Salinger, Holden Caulfield, a troubled 16 year old boy who constantly gets kicked out of every school takes it upon himself to become Ã¢â¬Å"The Catcher in the RyeÃ¢â¬ , in reality not being real occupation but an idea he chose to adopt for himself after he heard a little boy singing in the street. The catcher in the Rye can be described in HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective as a person, almost like a hero that helps childrenRead MoreCatcher in the Rye Essay837 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s fictional novel Ã¢â¬ËThe Catcher in the RyeÃ¢â¬â¢ explores ideas of coming of age and challenging societyÃ¢â¬â¢s morals through the life of Holden Caulfield, the young protagonist of the novel. The term Ã¢â¬Ëcoming of ageÃ¢â¬â¢ can be defined as when someone reaches an important stage in development and is accepted by a large number of people. The word Ã¢â¬ËmoralsÃ¢â¬â¢ is concerned with the principles or rules of right conduct or the distinction of right and wrong. Themes such as innocence, isolation and youth reside in
Be Friendly, Positive and Self- Reflective: When people cannot see you, and also do not know you, feelings can be hurt if you are not careful in how you express yourself. The old saying, think before you speak is important here. Think before you write. One word of advice is, do not respond when you feel angry. Wait. Write it down somewhere and come back to it. When you do, you may find that you no longer feel the same way as you did when you wrote it, because you have had time to reflect about the situation. Last, if you still feel the need to be heard, then edit before you post, and write it in terms that are easily embraced. This is also true when you feel a critique is necessary; say it in a positive tone. Reread what you have written to be sure it is positive. 4. Use Proper Language and Titles: Do not use slang or profane words in an education environment, even if they are words you consider, not so bad, as they will sound offensive to the reader. Do not refer to your professor as Doc or by his or her first name, unless it is acceptable with him or her to do so. Also, do not use caps lock when typing. It insinuates YELLING. That would hurt someones feelings and possibly give him (or her) the wrong impression of you. 5. Use Effective Communication: Say what you mean to say. This takes practice and thoughtful writing. Try to speak and write clearly at all times. Again, reread before you respond. Define and restate your words when necessary. Correct a misunderstanding right away. Chances are, if one person felt a certain way about what you said, another may have as well. Likewise, be mindful of chosen words and joking. Lets say for example, I write, Get out! This slang term can be interpreted in several ways, either positively or negatively. 6. Professionalism: Leave the characters like smiley faces, and instant message abbreviations out. Your friends may like it, but chances are your professor will not. Save it for personal conversations or definitely ask for permission before using them. They may be interpreted as childish or too casual for the online education environment. Lastly, always say please and thank you. Ã°Å¸Ëâ° 7. Ask for Clarification: If you are unsure of what was said, or the instructors directive, or are trying to interpret a persons expressions, then ask again. Do not sit in silence either misunderstanding or feeling offended. Do not interrupt though; wait until there is a break in the conversation, or until the open interaction occurs. Your instructor will appreciate your responsiveness and maturity. A simple way to do this is to say (or write), I did not understand , which will always keep the onus for the misunderstanding on yourself. 8. The Golden Rule of Netiquette: The golden rule of netiquette in an online class or environment is, do not do or say online what you would not do or say offline. 9. I do not drop grades (I do not drop your good grades so why should I drop your bad grades? ). 10. There is no extra credit (since you did not do it the first time, I am not giving you a chance to not do it again). 11. Make a friend in the class to call for back-up notes or assignments or for peer editing and clarification. A solid connection with other students is instrumental in being successful in college. Create study groups (I learned this late in my schooling, but it is a great idea). 12. Do not complain about the grade that a teacher gave you. Students are no longer given grades; they earn them (a slight change from kindergarten that a few students struggle with). I grade according to the syllabus and how effectively students meet the assignment objectives. 13. I do not care what grade you need to make. I do care that you improve as a student (earning a certain grade is your concern while your being an educated student is mine). 14. If you cheat, you will earn a Ã¢â¬Å"0Ã¢â¬ and not be given a second chance on the assignment (if you are cheating, I do not want you in a medical, legal, military or any other important career. P. S. there is such a thing as a permanent record). 15. Only write about what you are passionate (if you do not care about the subject, I can guarantee you that I will not be). The only caveat to this is being sure that you can objectively distance yourself from emotional topics to see the flaws in your logic. 6. Communicate with me (I skipped the day where they taught mind reading in school and have regretted it ever since). 17. Learn to skip excuses and take responsibility for all that occurs (being late for class or missing assignments consistently means that it is your fault not someone or something else). 18. Get involved and stay involved (if you are not participating, you are just visiting). 19. This is a composition course and you need to follow the suggestions that I give you to be a successful writer. a. Avoid using Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬ while writing, unless it is a process essay. I have violated this several times in this writing but there are a few exceptions to this advice. Choose to take the advice and overlook my use. Stick to third-person plural unless you are relating a first-person anecdote: avoid using Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ unless you are relating an anecdote. b. Avoid Ã¢â¬Å"thingÃ¢â¬ since there are many better and more specific words. c. Read the MLA format instructions in A WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s Reference to ensure you format your essays properly. d. Use specific details to support your points: The more specific the details, the stronger the essay. Classroom Rules free essay sample Be Friendly, Positive and Self- Reflective: When people cannot see you, and also do not know you, feelings can be hurt if you are not careful in how you express yourself. The old saying, think before you speak is important here. Think before you write. One word of advice is, do not respond when you feel angry. Wait. Write it down somewhere and come back to it. When you do, you may find that you no longer feel the same way as you did when you wrote it, because you have had time to reflect about the situation. Last, if you still feel the need to be heard, then edit before you post, and write it in terms that are easily embraced. This is also true when you feel a critique is necessary; say it in a positive tone. Reread what you have written to be sure it is positive. 4. Use Proper Language and Titles: Do not use slang or profane words in an education environment, even if they are words you consider, not so bad, as they will sound offensive to the reader. Do not refer to your professor as Doc or by his or her first name, unless it is acceptable with him or her to do so. Also, do not use caps lock when typing. It insinuates YELLING. That would hurt someones feelings and possibly give him (or her) the wrong impression of you. 5. Use Effective Communication: Say what you mean to say. This takes practice and thoughtful writing. Try to speak and write clearly at all times. Again, reread before you respond. Define and restate your words when necessary. Correct a misunderstanding right away. Chances are, if one person felt a certain way about what you said, another may have as well. Likewise, be mindful of chosen words and joking. Lets say for example, I write, Get out! This slang term can be interpreted in several ways, either positively or negatively. 6. Professionalism: Leave the characters like smiley faces, and instant message abbreviations out. Your friends may like it, but chances are your professor will not. Save it for personal conversations or definitely ask for permission before using them. They may be interpreted as childish or too casual for the online education environment. Lastly, always say please and thank you. Ã°Å¸Ëâ° 7. Ask for Clarification: If you are unsure of what was said, or the instructors directive, or are trying to interpret a persons expressions, then ask again. Do not sit in silence either misunderstanding or feeling offended. Do not interrupt though; wait until there is a break in the conversation, or until the open interaction occurs. Your instructor will appreciate your responsiveness and maturity. A simple way to do this is to say (or write), I did not understand , which will always keep the onus for the misunderstanding on yourself. 8. The Golden Rule of Netiquette: The golden rule of netiquette in an online class or environment is, do not do or say online what you would not do or say offline. 9. I do not drop grades (I do not drop your good grades so why should I drop your bad grades? ). 10. There is no extra credit (since you did not do it the first time, I am not giving you a chance to not do it again). 11. Make a friend in the class to call for back-up notes or assignments or for peer editing and clarification. A solid connection with other students is instrumental in being successful in college. Create study groups (I learned this late in my schooling, but it is a great idea). 12. Do not complain about the grade that a teacher gave you. Students are no longer given grades; they earn them (a slight change from kindergarten that a few students struggle with). I grade according to the syllabus and how effectively students meet the assignment objectives. 13. I do not care what grade you need to make. I do care that you improve as a student (earning a certain grade is your concern while your being an educated student is mine). 14. If you cheat, you will earn a Ã¢â¬Å"0Ã¢â¬ and not be given a second chance on the assignment (if you are cheating, I do not want you in a medical, legal, military or any other important career. P. S. there is such a thing as a permanent record). 15. Only write about what you are passionate (if you do not care about the subject, I can guarantee you that I will not be). The only caveat to this is being sure that you can objectively distance yourself from emotional topics to see the flaws in your logic. 6. Communicate with me (I skipped the day where they taught mind reading in school and have regretted it ever since). 17. Learn to skip excuses and take responsibility for all that occurs (being late for class or missing assignments consistently means that it is your fault not someone or something else). 18. Get involved and stay involved (if you are not participating, you are just visiting). 19. This is a composition course and you need to follow the suggestions that I give you to be a successful writer. a. Avoid using Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬ while writing, unless it is a process essay. I have violated this several times in this writing but there are a few exceptions to this advice. Choose to take the advice and overlook my use. Stick to third-person plural unless you are relating a first-person anecdote: avoid using Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ unless you are relating an anecdote. b. Avoid Ã¢â¬Å"thingÃ¢â¬ since there are many better and more specific words. c. Read the MLA format instructions in A WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s Reference to ensure you format your essays properly. d. Use specific details to support your points: The more specific the details, the stronger the essay.